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Tasmanian "Black Tuesday" bushfires. Jail Break Inn Fire , Junee. Livestock losses estimated to be over 20, Seven homes, seven headers and four shearing sheds destroyed.
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Infrastructure destroyed at Siding Spring Observatory. Major fires also occurred in the Hunter , Central Coast , Macarthur and Port Stephens regions causing significant damage.
They did not usually build walls or fences, and there were no horses, cows or sheep in Australia that needed to be kept in pens.
The only Aboriginal buildings that are known are fish-traps made from stones piled up in the river, and the remains of a few stone huts in Victoria and Tasmania.
In some parts of Australia the people used sharp flaked-stone spearheads, but most Aboriginal spears were made of sharply pointed wood. Australia has a lot of trees that have very hard wood that was good for spear making.
The boomerang was used in some areas for sport and for hunting. The Aboriginal people did not think that the land belonged to them. They believed that they had grown from the land, so it was like their mother, and they belonged to the land.
In the s, Dutch merchants traded with the islands of Batavia now Indonesia , to the north of Australia and several different Dutch ships touched on the coast of Australia.
Its name was later changed to honour the man who discovered it. The British Government was sure that there must be a very large land in the south, that had not been explored.
The voyage of discovery was very successful, because they found New Zealand and sailed right around it. Then they sailed westward.
At last, a boy, William Hicks, who was up the mast spotted land on the horizon. Captain Cook named that bit of land Point Hicks.
At last they sailed into a large open bay which was full of fish and stingrays which the sailors speared for food.
Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander went ashore and were astonished to find that they did not know what any of the plants or birds or animals that they saw were.
They collected hundreds of plants to take back to England. Captain Cook saw the Aboriginal people with their simple way of life. He saw them fishing and hunting and collecting grass seeds and fruit.
But there were no houses and no fences. In most parts of the world, people put up a house and a fence or some marker to show that they own the land.
But the Aboriginal people did not own the land in that way. They belonged to the land, like a baby belongs to its mother. Captain Cook went home to England and told the government that no-one owned the land.
This would later cause a terrible problem for the Aboriginal people. In the s, in England, laws were tough, many people were poor and gaols jails were full.
A person could be sentenced to death for stealing a loaf of bread. Many people were hung for small crimes.
But usually they were just thrown in gaol. Often they were sent away to the British colonies in America. But by the s, the colonies in America became the United States.
By the s the gaols of England were so full that convicts were often chained up in rotting old ships. The government decided to make a settlement in New South Wales and send some of the convicts there.
In the First Fleet of eleven ships set sail from Portsmouth carrying convicts, sailors, marines, a few free settlers and enough food to last for two years.
Their leader was Captain Arthur Phillip. They were to make a new colony at the place that Captain Cook had discovered, named Botany Bay because of all the unknown plants found there by the two scientists.
Captain Phillip found that Botany Bay was flat and windy. There was not much fresh water. He went with two ships up the coast and sailed into a great harbor which he said was "the finest harbor in the world!
For the first few years of the settlement, things were very difficult. No-one in the British Government had thought very hard about what sort of convicts should be sent to make a new colony.
Nobody had chosen them carefully. There was only one man who was a farmer. There was no-one among the convicts who was a builder, a brick-maker or a blacksmith.
No-one knew how to fix the tools when they broke. All of the cattle escaped. There were no cooking pots.
All the plants were different so no-one knew which ones could be eaten. It was probable that everyone in the new colony would die of starvation.
Somehow, the little group of tents with a hut for the Governor, Arthur Phillip, and another hut for the supply of food, grew into a small town with streets, a bridge over the stream, a windmill for grinding grain and wharves for ships.
By the s there was a fine brick house for the Governor. There was also a hospital and a convict barracks and a beautiful church which are still standing today.
Spanish Merino sheep had been brought to Sydney, and by , farmers were raising fat lambs for meat and also sending fine wool back to the factories of England.
While the settlement was growing in New South Wales, it was also growing in Tasmania. The climate in Tasmania was more like that in England, and farmers found it easy to grow crops there.
Because Australia is such a very large land, it was easy to think that it might be able to hold a very large number of people.
In the early days of the colony, a great number of explorers went out, searching for good land to settle on. When the settlers looked west from Sydney, they saw a range of mountains which they called the Blue Mountains.
They were not very high and did not look very rugged but for many years no-one could find their way through them.
In Gregory Blaxland , William Lawson and a year-old called William Charles Wentworth crossed the Blue Mountains and found land on the other side which was good for farming.
Some people, like Captain Charles Sturt were sure that there must be a sea in the middle of Australia and set out to find it. Many of the explorers did not prepare very well, or else they went out to explore at the hottest time of year.
Some died like Burke and Wills. Ludwig Leichhardt got lost twice. The second time, he was never seen again.
Major Thomas Mitchell was one of the most successful explorers. He mapped the country as he went, and his maps remained in use for more than years.
He travelled all the way to what is now western Victoria, and to his surprise and annoyance found that he was not the first white person there.
The Henty brothers had come from Tasmania , had built themselves a house, had a successful farm and fed the Major and his men on roast lamb and wine.
The gold rushes of New South Wales and Victoria started in leading to large numbers of people arriving to search for gold. The population grew across south east Australia and made great wealth and industry.
It is probable their German Australian children share this settlement pattern. According to census data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in , German Australians are, by religion, In , the German language was spoken at home by 76, persons in Australia.
Germans have been in Australia since the commencement of European settlement in At least seventy-three Germans arrived in Australia as convicts.
Germans formed the largest non-English-speaking group in Australia up to the 20th century. Old Lutherans emigrated in response to the Prussian Union and organized churches both among themselves and with other German speakers, such as the Kavel-Fritzsche Synod.
Forty-Eighters is a term for those who participated in or supported the European Revolutions of Many emigrated as a result of those revolutions.
In particular, following the ultimate failure of the "March Revolution" in Germany , a substantial number of Germans emigrated to Australia. See Forty-Eighters in Australia.
Many Germans had emigrated to Australia to flee the rise of militarism and martial chauvinism in the land of their birth. Instead of the earlier pattern of the majority of settlers arriving in families, young single men started to arrive, young men who were at odds with the increasing militarisation of their Fatherland, and also often at odds with the Rampant Chauvinisation of German Social Life.
By , Germans were the fourth-largest European ethnic group on the continent, behind the English, Irish and Scots. By , the number of German-Australians including the descendants of German-born migrants of the second and third generation who had become Australians by birth was estimated at approximately , Throughout both World Wars Germans were considered an "enemy within" and a number were interned or deported — or both.
The persecution of German Australians also included the closure of German schools, the banning of the German language in government schools, and the renaming of many German place names.
During WWII, Australia was also place of incarceration of 2, "enemy aliens" deported from Britain, composed of many of the Austrian and German nationals who were expelled in a blanket deportation, and numerous Italian citizens.
Australia has long been a popular destination for German backpacker tourists and students. The Australian wine industry was the creation of German settlers in the nineteenth century.
Historically, German newspapers were setup by early settlers, with many being forced to close or merge due to labour shortages caused by the Victorian gold rush of the ss.